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Korban (Sacrifices)

Asal usul Korban

Dalam Urantia Book, diceritakan bahwa korban yang pertama sekali dilakukan oleh suku Andonik (Andon adalah manusia pertama dari hasil evolusi, sekitar 995 ribu tahun yang lalu, lihat Paper 63), dengan tujuan untuk lebih memberikan kesan pada kaum muda. Ritual ini dipelihara oleh Musa (Yahudi) dan Paulus.  

.  [63:6.4] Very early the Andonic peoples formed the habit of refraining from eating the flesh of the animal of tribal veneration. Presently, in order more suitably to impress the minds of their youths, they evolved a ceremony of reverence which was carried out about the body of one of these venerated animals; and still later on, this primitive performance developed into the more elaborate sacrificial ceremonies of their descendants. And this is the origin of sacrifices as a part of worship. This idea was elaborated by Moses in the Hebrew ritual and was preserved, in principle, by the Apostle Paul as the doctrine of atonement for sin by "the shedding of blood." 

Asal usul yang lebih lengkap mulainya konsep dosa, korban, dan penebusan dibahas dalam satu Paper, yaitu Paper 89: Sin, Sacrifice, and Atonement.  Korban tidak dapat dilepaskan dari konsep purba tentang dosa dan tabu (larangan).  Berikutnya dalam pasal 4, UB membahas tentang asal sejarah korban, sbb: 

Korban tidaklah berasal dari satu sebab yang sederhana.  Adalah dorongan menyembah yang menyebabkan munculnya korban. Nilai korban dihitung dari rasa sakit yang diderita.  Contohnya adalah mencabuti rambut, melukai badan, memotong anggota badan, mencabut gigi, dan memotong jari. Ketika peradaban makin maju, konsep itu berkembang menjadi ritual penyangkalan diri, bertapa, puasa, pantang, dan doktrin penyucian melalui penderitaan dan mortifikasi daging. 

[89:4.1] Sacrifice as a part of religious devotions, like many other worshipful rituals, did not have a simple and single origin. The tendency to bow down before power and to prostrate oneself in worshipful adoration in the presence of mystery is foreshadowed in the fawning of the dog before its master. It is but one step from the impulse of worship to the act of sacrifice. Primitive man gauged the value of his sacrifice by the pain which he suffered. When the idea of sacrifice first attached itself to religious ceremonial, no offering was contemplated which was not productive of pain. The first sacrifices were such acts as plucking hair, cutting the flesh, mutilations, knocking out teeth, and cutting off fingers. As civilization advanced, these crude concepts of sacrifice were elevated to the level of the rituals of self-abnegation, asceticism, fasting, deprivation, and the later Christian doctrine of sanctification through sorrow, suffering, and the mortification of the flesh.

Ada dua jenis korban dari awalnya :  korban pemberian ucapan syukur (gift), dan korban hutang.  Belakangan berkembang pandangan tentang penggantian (substitusi).  Muncul juga upacara korban pendamaian dan konsep dosa asal.  .   

[89:4.2] Early in the evolution of religion there existed two conceptions of the sacrifice: the idea of the gift sacrifice, which connoted the attitude of thanksgiving, and the debt sacrifice, which embraced the idea of redemption. Later there developed the notion of substitution.  [89:4.3] Man still later conceived that his sacrifice of whatever nature might function as a message bearer to the gods; it might be as a sweet savor in the nostrils of deity. This brought incense and other aesthetic features of sacrificial rituals which developed into sacrificial feasting, in time becoming increasingly elaborate and ornate.    [89:4.4] As religion evolved, the sacrificial rites of conciliation and propitiation replaced the older methods of avoidance, placation, and exorcism.  [89:4.5] The earliest idea of the sacrifice was that of a neutrality assessment levied by ancestral spirits; only later did the idea of atonement develop. As man got away from the notion of the evolutionary origin of the race, as the traditions of the days of the Planetary Prince and the sojourn of Adam filtered down through time, the concept of sin and of original sin became widespread, so that sacrifice for accidental and personal sin evolved into the doctrine of sacrifice for the atonement of racial sin. The atonement of the sacrifice was a blanket insurance device which covered even the resentment and jealousy of an unknown god.  [89:4.6] Surrounded by so many sensitive spirits and grasping gods, primitive man was face to face with such a host of creditor deities that it required all the priests, ritual, and sacrifices throughout an entire lifetime to get him out of spiritual debt. The doctrine of original sin, or racial guilt, started every person out in serious debt to the spirit powers.   

Hadiah dan suap diberikan pada manusia, tetapi jika itu diberikan pada dewa-dewa, itu disebut disucikan, atau korban.  Dulu, manusia primitif menganggap hewan adalah kerabat manusia (maka banyak suku yang punya totem binatang, Indonesia punya Garuda), oleh sebab itu korban binatang itu penting.  Seorang Firaun Mesir pernah mengorbankan ratusan ribu budak, binatang, kapal, patung emas, roti, dan uang. 

[89:4.7] Gifts and bribes are given to men; but when tendered to the gods, they are described as being dedicated, made sacred, or are called sacrifices. Renunciation was the negative form of propitiation; sacrifice became the positive form. The act of propitiation included praise, glorification, flattery, and even entertainment. And it is the remnants of these positive practices of the olden propitiation cult that constitute the modern forms of divine worship. Present-day forms of worship are simply the ritualization of these ancient sacrificial techniques of positive propitiation.    [89:4.8] Animal sacrifice meant much more to primitive man than it could ever mean to modern races. These barbarians regarded the animals as their actual and near kin. As time passed, man became shrewd in his sacrificing, ceasing to offer up his work animals. At first he sacrificed the best of everything, including his domesticated animals.  [89:4.9] It was no empty boast that a certain Egyptian ruler made when he stated that he had sacrificed: 113,433 slaves, 493,386 head of cattle, 88 boats, 2,756 golden images, 331,702 jars of honey and oil, 228,380 jars of wine, 680,714 geese, 6,744,428 loaves of bread, and 5,740,352 sacks of coin. And in order to do this he must needs have sorely taxed his toiling subjects.  [89:4.10] Sheer necessity eventually drove these semisavages to eat the material part of their sacrifices, the gods having enjoyed the soul thereof. And this custom found justification under the pretense of the ancient sacred meal, a communion service according to modern usage.    

Paper 89 kemudian membahas tentang pengorbanan dan kanibalisme yang pernah terjadi dalam sejarah manusia.  Pasal 6 dari Paper 89 membahas tentang evolusi korban manusia, pasal 7 modifikasinya, kemudian pasal 8 tentang konsep Penebusan, dan pasal 9 tentang Korban dan Sakramen.

9. SACRIFICES AND SACRAMENTS    [89:9.1] The human sacrifice, throughout the course of the evolution of Urantian rituals, has advanced from the bloody business of man-eating to higher and more symbolic levels. The early rituals of sacrifice bred the later ceremonies of sacrament. In more recent times the priest alone would partake of a bit of the cannibalistic sacrifice or a drop of human blood, and then all would partake of the animal substitute. These early ideas of ransom, redemption, and covenants have evolved into the later-day sacramental services. And all this ceremonial evolution has exerted a mighty socializing influence.  [89:9.2] In connection with the Mother of God cult, in Mexico and elsewhere, a sacrament of cakes and wine was eventually utilized in lieu of the flesh and blood of the older human sacrifices. The Hebrews long practiced this ritual as a part of their Passover ceremonies, and it was from this ceremonial that the later Christian version of the sacrament took its origin.  [89:9.3] The ancient social brotherhoods were based on the rite of blood drinking; the early Jewish fraternity was a sacrificial blood affair. Paul started out to build a new Christian cult on "the blood of the everlasting covenant." And while he may have unnecessarily encumbered Christianity with teachings about blood and sacrifice, he did once and for all make an end of the doctrines of redemption through human or animal sacrifices. His theologic compromises indicate that even revelation must submit to the graduated control of evolution. According to Paul, Christ became the last and all-sufficient human sacrifice; the divine Judge is now fully and forever satisfied.  [89:9.4] And so, after long ages the cult of the sacrifice has evolved into the cult of the sacrament. Thus are the sacraments of modern religions the legitimate successors of those shocking early ceremonies of human sacrifice and the still earlier cannibalistic rituals. Many still depend upon blood for salvation, but it has at least become figurative, symbolic, and mystic.    

Dengan demikian jelas bahwa konsep korban adalah konsep yang sangat kuno dan berasal dari evolusi konsep agama.  Ini sangat natural.  Orang Yahudi dan Islam melakukannya dengan memotong korban binatang.  

Pandangan Yesus tentang Korban

Yesus pada usia 12 tahu pertama kali melihat upacara sakramen korban di Yerusalem.  Apa yang terjadi? 

1. JESUS VIEWS THE TEMPLE  [125:1.1] Everywhere Jesus went throughout the temple courts, he was shocked and sickened by the spirit of irreverence which he observed. He deemed the conduct of the temple throngs to be inconsistent with their presence in "his Father's house." But he received the  shock of his young life when his father escorted him into the court of the gentiles with its noisy jargon, loud talking and cursing, mingled indiscriminately with the bleating of sheep and the babble of noises which betrayed the presence of the money-changers and the vendors of sacrificial animals and sundry other commercial commodities.  [125:1.2] But most of all was his sense of propriety outraged by the sight of the frivolous courtesans parading about within this precinct of the temple, just such painted women as he had so recently seen when on a visit to Sepphoris. This profanation of the temple  fully aroused all his youthful indignation, and he did not hesitate to express himself freely to Joseph.  [125:1.3] Jesus admired the sentiment and service of the temple, but he was shocked by the spiritual ugliness which he beheld on the faces of so many of the unthinking worshipers.  [125:1.4] They now passed down to the priests' court beneath the rock ledge in front of the temple, where the altar stood, to observe the killing of the droves of animals and the washing away of the blood from the hands of the officiating slaughter priests at the bronze fountain. The bloodstained pavement, the gory hands of the priests, and the sounds of the dying animals were more than this nature-loving lad could stand. The terrible sight sickened this boy of Nazareth; he clutched his father's arm and begged to be taken away. They walked back through the court of the gentiles, and even the coarse laughter and profane jesting which he there heard were a relief from the sights he had just beheld. [125:1.5] Joseph saw how his son had sickened at the sight of the temple rites and wisely led him around to view the "gate beautiful," the artistic gate made of Corinthian bronze. But Jesus had had enough for his first visit at the temple. They returned to the upper court for Mary and walked about in the open air and away from the crowds for an hour, viewing the Asmonean palace, the stately home of Herod, and the tower of the Roman guards. During this stroll Joseph explained to Jesus that only the inhabitants of Jerusalem were permitted to witness the daily sacrifices in the temple, and that the dwellers in Galilee came up only three times a year to participate in the temple worship: at the Passover, at the feast of Pentecost (seven weeks after Passover), and at the feast of tabernacles in October. These feasts were established by Moses. They then discussed the two later established feasts of the dedication and of Purim. Afterward they went to their lodgings and made ready for the celebration of the Passover.    

Yesus (12 tahun) ketakutan melihat penyembelihan kambing domba dan minta agar segera pergi dari tempat itu!!

Yesus kecewa terhadap semua alasan tentang upacara kejam tersebut.  Dia mengatakan bahwa 'Bapaku di sorga bukan Bapa yang penuh murka.  Dia penuh kasih'. Yesus menentang upacara pengorbanan tersebut karena alasan yang sangat fundamental tentang sifat tabiat Allah.  Yesus berkata :  "Bapa surgawi tidak dapat mengasihi anak-anakNya kurang dari engkau (Yusuf ayah Yesus) mengasihi aku (Yesus)."  Masakan perbuatan Allah lebih rendah dari perbuatan seorang ayah yang mengasihi anaknya???? 

[125:0.6] Though many of the temple rituals very touchingly impressed his sense of the beautiful and the symbolic, he was always disappointed by the explanation of the real meanings of these ceremonies which his parents would offer in answer to his many searching inquiries. Jesus simply would not accept explanations of worship and religious devotion which involved belief in the wrath of God or the anger of the Almighty. In further discussion of these questions, after the conclusion of the temple visit, when his father became mildly insistent that he acknowledge acceptance of the orthodox Jewish beliefs, Jesus turned suddenly upon his parents and, looking appealingly into the eyes of his father, said: "My father, it cannot be true -- the Father in heaven cannot so regard his erring children on earth. The heavenly Father cannot love his children less than you love me. And I well know, no matter what unwise thing I might do, you would never pour out wrath upon me nor vent anger against me. If you, my earthly father, possess such human reflections of the Divine, how much more must the heavenly Father be filled with goodness and overflowing with mercy. I refuse to believe that my Father in heaven loves me less than my father on earth."  [125:0.7] When Joseph and Mary heard these words of their first-born son, they held their peace. And never again did they seek to change his mind about the love of God and the mercifulness of the Father in heaven. 

Perhatikan kata-kata Yesus.  Dia adalah Putera Pencipta yang datang dari Bapa, dan Dia tahu seperti apa Allah itu sesungguhnya.  

[125:2.3] Even at this early date, though he said nothing about such matters to his parents, Jesus had begun to turn over in his mind the propriety of celebrating the Passover without the slaughtered lamb. He felt assured in his own mind that the Father in heaven was not pleased with this spectacle of sacrificial offerings, and as the years passed, he became increasingly determined someday to establish the celebration of a bloodless Passover.  [125:2.4] Jesus slept very little that night. His rest was greatly disturbed by revolting dreams of slaughter and suffering. His mind was distraught and his heart torn by the inconsistencies and absurdities of the theology of the whole Jewish ceremonial system. His  parents likewise slept little. They were greatly disconcerted by the events of the day just ended. They were completely upset in their own hearts by the lad's, to them, strange and determined attitude. Mary became nervously agitated during the fore part of the night, but Joseph remained calm, though he was equally puzzled. Both of them feared to talk frankly with the lad about these problems, though Jesus would gladly have talked with his parents if they had dared to encourage him

Yesus sangat terganggu dan susah tidur karena melihat perbuatan kejam terhadap binatang di Yerusalem itu.  Dia memutuskan untuk merayakan Paskah Yahudi dengan cara tanpa pengorbanan binatang.  Ini yang diajarkannya dalam bentuk yang kini dikenal sebagai Perjamuan Kudus dalam agama Kristen.  Upacara itu adalah hasil reformasi yang dilakukan Yesus terhadap upacara pengorbanan Paskah yang berdarah.  Yesus menemukan tentang inkonsistensi dan kemustahilan teologi seluruh sistem seremonial Yahudi (penulis menganjurkan agar para pakar Islam mempertimbangkan ini dengan serius). Caranya adalah dengan mereformasi perayaan berdarah itu dengan upacara yang lebih baik dan "beradab" disesuaikan dengan konsep dasar yang benar tentang Allah.  Jika Hari Raya Korban (Idul Adha) bertujuan untuk sosial, maka hal itu harus dipelihara, tetapi bentuknya harus direformasi.  Kalau tidak, kita akan tetap menjadi manusia primitif.